Discussion: Low calcium and sodium levels. Discussion: Low calcium and sodium levels. Compose a 3 -to 4-page case analysis (in addition to a title, abstract, and a reference page) written in APA format with at least 3 references, with one non-Internet reference. The following should be covered in the paper: Title page: Case title, full name, section, date, instructor, and campus • Abstract: Summarize the case. Introduction: Explain the physiological importance of the liver, pancreas, and kidneys for the proper functioning of the human body. Body: Respond to the prompts. Organize your analysis with headings that thoroughly answer the prompts (e.g., “Calcium and Sodium Imbalance” should be the heading for question 1). Conclusion: Summarize the paper in a paragraph. ———————————————————————————————————————————————————————– Case: End-Stage Kidney Disease Sarah, a 63-year-old female with a past medical history significant for diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, gout, and a 30-pack a year smoking history presents to the emergency room with chest pain revealing pericarditis in the echocardiogram, secondary to recently diagnosed end-stage renal disease. Physical examination reveals yellowish discoloration to the skin and sclera, multiple bruises, 2+ bilateral edema, and weakness lasting more than three weeks. Her medications include Glisten, a new drug for diabetes that causes ATP sensitive potassium channels to close, thereby releasing insulin. Her recent laboratory results are as follows: ———————————————————————————————————————————————————————– Please address each of the following regarding Sarah’s case: 1. Explain the cause for her low calcium and sodium levels. 2. Explain the cause of her anemia. What laboratory test should indicate she is suffering from anemia? 3. Explain the cause of her hypotension. How will her body attempt to establish homeostasis? 4. What type of acid-base disorder has she developed, and how will her body compensate? 5. Explain the cause of her elevated ADH and glucose levels. 6. What is the correlation between her illnesses and the low vitamins (D, K, E, and A), renin, and aldosterone levels? 7. Which hormone would the body elevate in response to her low calcium levels? Why? 8. Explain the physiological reason behind her physical findings (yellowish hint of the skin, sclera, multiple bruises, weakness, and edema). 9. Explain the cause of her abnormal stool and urine sample. 10. What cell does Glisten work on? Explain how this medication is able to stimulate insulin secretion You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes. Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages. Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor. The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.